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160                                     FLORA  INDICA.
Vindhia on the south/the Ganges and its tributaries flow
through a broa^. ^lain, uninterrupted by any inequality of
surface. The Jfc$ir> x above and the Ganges below the junc-
tion of the two rivers, flow* near the southern margin of the
plain, occasionally washing the rocky extremities of the hills,
which advance from the southward, and always at no great
distance from'them, so that the greater part of the plain lies
to the north, between these rivers and the Himalaya. As liir
as the commencement of the delta of the Ganges, its surface
is characterized by great uniformity of physical character; it
may therefore conveniently be regarded as one botanical pro-
vince, including the districts of Delhi and Agra onxth'e left
bank of the Jumna, which adjoin the Rajput states, the Doab
between the Jumna and Ganges, and Eohilkhand, Oude, and
Benares, with the district of Tirhut, on the left bank of the
Though the Gangetic plain is not separated from the Pan-
jab by any perceptible ridge, the line of separation between
the two, which lies very little to the left of the Jumna,
between Karnal or Jagadri, aud Tlianesir, is the most ele-
vated part of the plain which lies at the base of the Himalaya.
Ambala, on a branch of the Gogra, and Saharanpur, on the
left bank of the Jumna, are each about 1000 feet above the
level of the sea, and the high lands* on the right bank of the
Jumna are probably not more thau lifty feet higher. Thence
the plain slopes very gradually to the sea, with an average
fall of about a foot a mile. Agra is 070 feet, Cawnporc 500
feet, Allahabad 305 feet, aiid Benares 265 feet above the love)
of the sea.
The mean temperature of the upper Gangetic plain varies
from 78 at its lower extremity, to 72^ at Saharaupxir, the
diminution being mainly caused by the increased cold of the
winter months, as the heat of-summer is in all parts very
great. The rains set in everywhere soon after the sun has
attained its most northern limit. The rain-fall is greatest
near the Himalaya, and diminished gradually as we recede